What would induce a software developer to quit a good job in Silicon Valley and trade California's sunshine for Toronto's wintry skies?
For Vikram Rangnekar, born in India and educated in America,
the triggers were the restrictions placed on immigrant tech workers holding an H-1B visa (starting companies or taking long holidays is discouraged)
and what looked like a 20-year wait to get the green card he needed in order to settle down.
Rising anti-immigrant sentiment under President Donald Trump's administration did not help. Two years later he thinks he made the right choice.
"I didn't want to spend the best years of my life on a restrictive visa."
People like Mr Rangnekar are part of an exodus of tech workers from Silicon Valley.
Pushed out by the cost of living as well as by a less welcoming American government,
they are being pulled in by countries such as Canada, where tech vacancies are forecast to reach 200,000 by 2020.
Canada is gambling that by the time America wakes up to the cost of discouraging immigrants its tech sector will have secured some of the best talent.
The starting-point is pretty promising.
Toronto already has expertise in artificial intelligence (AI) and an array of promising firms such as Wattpad, a storytelling platform with 65m readers.
The city added more tech jobs in 2017 than the San Francisco Bay area, Seattle and Washington, DC, combined.
Ottawa is home to Shopify, a publicly traded e-commerce platform valued at C$19bn ($14bn).
Montreal, another AI hotbed, has Element AI, a co-founded by Yoshua Bengio, a specialist in deep learning—and newish labs opened by Facebook and Samsung.
蒙特利尔是另一片AI温床，这里有研究实验室Element AI，深度学历领域专家Yoshua Bengio是其联合创始人—以及脸书和三星创办的新型实验室。
Yet Canada is in the third tier of destinations globally, says a study on venture-capital investment,
"The Rise of the Global Start-Up City", co-authored by Richard Florida, an urbanologist.
《The Rise of the Global Start-Up Cit》说如是，都市学家理查德·佛罗里达是该研究的联合作者。
To move up, the government has tweaked both its permanent and temporary immigrant programmes.
Applicants for permanent residence get extra points for tech skills. Temporary visa holders are told their spouses will be allowed to work.