RACHEL MARTIN, HOST:
Before she became the director of the CIA, Gina Haspel spent much of her career overseas and undercover. And she wants more CIA officers doing the same. In her one speech as head of the spy agency, she said a top priority is to...
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GINA HASPEL: Steadily increase the number of officers stationed overseas. That's where our mission as a foreign intelligence agency lies, and having a larger foreign footprint allows for a more robust posture.
MARTIN: But in an age of universal surveillance, this is a big challenge. Here's NPR's national security correspondent Greg Myre.
GREG MYRE, BYLINE: When a CIA officer goes abroad, it's important to, well, not look too American.
JONNA MENDEZ: So we would de-Americanize you.
MYRE: That's what Jonna Mendez did when she was chief of disguise at the CIA, a job that went far beyond wigs and makeup. If, for example, an American wants to appear European, here are a few key tips.
MENDEZ: They wear their wedding rings on different fingers.
MYRE: And in a restaurant...
MENDEZ: They eat differently than we do. They don't shuttle that fork back and forth.
MYRE: And on the street...
MENDEZ: They think that we are slouchy, a little sloppy. And they think that they can almost see that in our demeanor on the street because they stand up straight. They don't lean on things.
MYRE: And of course, you need documents that hide your true identity. Retired CIA officer John Sipher says it wasn't all that complicated when he started out in the 1980s.
JOHN SIPHER: I could use what we called pocket litter of driver's licenses and these kinds of things, and that would be enough if I was ever questioned at a hotel or even crossing borders.
MYRE: It's not that way anymore.
SIPHER: There's no doubt it's much harder to build and protect cover nowadays than it was 20, 30, 40 years ago. That's for sure.
MYRE: Many airports now scan faces and fingerprints that are matched against a vast database. Sipher says it could be tough today to enter the same country twice with different sets of documents.
SIPHER: You know, with the proliferation of social media and a lot of these open-source means of looking into people's backgrounds, if you don't have a consistent background and a cover that makes sense, it's going to be much more difficult to hide your true affiliation.
MYRE: Most everyone leaves digital footprints from a young age that can easily be checked years later - school records, work history, phone numbers, addresses. It's a dilemma for spies who need online personas, real or fictional, that look plausible without giving away too much. Here's the CIA's chief of recruiting, Sheronda. We're only allowed to use her first name.
SHERONDA: People here do use social media. And yes, specific guidelines are provided.
MYRE: Which she won't talk about. And if nothing turns up in an online search, well, that would certainly be suspicious. Here's Mary, a CIA undercover officer who spent most of her career abroad.
MARY: I think everybody has some sort of online presence. If you were to Google an officer, I'm sure that something would come up, whether it was college degree or whatever. I don't know. So I don't think nothing would come up.
MYRE: Some in the world of intelligence say it may now make more sense for spies to use their real names and their real personal data rather than create a fictional past. Consider the two Russians accused of poisoning a former Russian intelligence officer, Sergei Skripal, in Britain this past spring. Britain released security camera footage documenting their visit to the country under assumed names, notes John Sipher.
SIPHER: The British were able to put together an incredible mosaic.
MYRE: Armed with the photos, a private research group, Bellingcat, then used open-source Internet data to tease out the real identities of the men, tracing them back to their hometowns in Russia.
SIPHER: They were able to put together essentially everything that they did to prove that it was a Russian intelligence operation.
MYRE: Intelligence work is often a combination of electronic surveillance and clandestine, person-to-person contacts. As technology races ahead, electronic, or signals intelligence, keeps getting better. Old-fashioned spying between a CIA officer and a foreign source gets harder. But Jonna Mendez says you'll always need the human touch.
MENDEZ: It's a job of human beings. You have to find the people who have the access, and then you have to do what I think is one of the toughest jobs in the world. You have to convince them to give you that information.
MYRE: These are the people the CIA hopes to find.
Greg Myre, NPR News, Washington.