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面包的起伏“人生”

作者:未知 来源:未知 2015-11-05 我要评论( )

Slicing into bread’s mysteries

面包的起伏“人生”

When you bite into a loaf of bread, you’re devouring a little, crumbly slice of history, with roots that stretch back for millennia.

每当你咬一口面包,其实也是吞下了千年面包史中的一小点酥脆块。

But this staple food, which has dominated tabletops for nearly 30,000 years, is in a perilous decline.

不过这种主宰人类餐桌近30,000年的主食正处在危险的衰落期。

According to the BBC, 32 percent of the purchased bread is being dumped in the UK. And in France – a country whose breads are internationally renowned – young people are eating 30 percent less than a decade ago.

据BBC报道,在英国有近32%的面包在售出后被丢弃。就连在以面包享誉全球的法国,年轻人的面包食用量也比十年前下降了30%。

Traditionally, bread has been a cornerstone of many cultures around the world. Wherever wheat was grown, bread was sure to follow.

相传面包孕育了地球上的许多文明。只要种小麦的地方,就会有面包。

Its roles were just as varied as its origins. Bread could be used as an appetizer, a palate cleanser, a post-meal palate cleaner – even as an entire meal itself.

它的角色像它的起源一样丰富多样。面包既能当开胃菜、清舌餐点,甚至还能直接当正餐。

As its popularity grew, so too did its symbolic value. Christianity adopted bread as a representation of Christ during religious ceremonies.

随着面包的流行,它的象征价值也流传开来。基督教在宗教仪式上用面包代表基督。

“Breaking bread” with someone became a common symbol of friendship. The French even used to bring baguettes home as a symbol of love to the family.

和某人一起“掰面包”成为一种常见的友谊象征。法国人曾以带法棍面包回家作为热爱家庭的标志。

But recently, the world’s love affair with this doughy concoction came to fade.

不过近年来各国对这种面团混合物的爱开始消褪。

Some speculated that the fast pace of modern life is changing people’s eating habits.

有人推测现代生活的快节奏正在改变人类的饮食习惯。

Others credited the backlash to health concerns. Bread is rich in complex carbohydrates, a fact that could alienate anyone who practices a low-carb or gluten-free lifestyle.

还有人相信这反映了(人们)对健康的关心。面包富含丰富的碳水化合物,这可能会导致那些崇尚低碳水化合物和不含麸质生活方式的人疏远它。

Bread revival

面包的复兴

The shift against bread is also associated with its mass production. Extra yeast and additives are added to the dough, to prolong its shelf life. In the process, bread ends up being “blanched and nutrient stripped” as British nutritionist Vicki Edgson puts it.

面包的低迷也和大规模生产有关。为了延长保质期,面团被加入过量酵母和添加剂。英国营养学家薇姬•埃奇森认为这一过程的最终结果是面包变得“越来越白,越来越没营养”。

But dedicated bakers around the world have rushed forward to rescue bread’s good reputation. They forego mass production in favor of crafting “artisanal bread”, a niche industry dedicated to baking flavorful loaves the old-fashioned way.

不过世界上还有一些走心的面包师冲上前去拯救面包的声誉。他们摒弃大规模生产,支持小规模传统工艺制作的美味“手工面包”。

British artisan baker Mark Newman told the BBC that his loaves take up to 18 hours from start to finish.

英国手工面包师马克•纽曼告诉英国广播公司,他烘焙一块面包需要长达18小时。

“In terms of nutrition and eating satisfaction, a handmade loaf of real bread and mass-produced bread are completely different products,” he told the BBC.

“从营养和口感上看,手工制作的面包和大规模生产的面包完全是不同的产品,”他说。

Consumers’ taste buds have detected the difference. One variety of artisanal toast recently scored over 50,000 photo tags on Instagram, a US social media site.

消费者的味蕾能鉴别它们。在美国社交应用Instagram上,各种手工面包的已经有超过50,000条图片标签了。

Artisanal bakers hope to build on the popular enthusiasm to grow their industry. With a little luck – and some fresh, whole grains – bread might return to its traditional glory.

手工面包师希望能通过唤起大众对面包的热爱来发展他们的产业。只需加入一点运气,提高新鲜度和使用全谷物原料,面包或许就能重回往日的辉煌。

重点词汇学习:

devour [di'vauə]
vt. 吞食;毁灭;凝视

crumbly ['krʌmbli]
adj. 脆的;易碎的

concoction [kən'kɔkʃən]
n. 混合;调合;调合物

backlash ['bæk,læʃ]
n. 后座;反斜线;后冲

dough [dəu]
n. 生面团;金钱

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