2011年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖

作者:未知 来源:未知 2013-03-31

The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine goes to Bruce Beutler at the Scripps Research Institute in California, Jules Hoffmann at the French National Center for Scientific Research and Ralph Steinman at Rockefeller University in New York City. Beutler and Hoffman helped to elucidate innate immunity. That’s the non-specific array of initial responses by the body’s immune system that can recognize invading microorganisms as being foreign and try to destroy them.
2011年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖授予位于加州斯里普斯研究所的Bruce Beutler 教授,法国国家科学研究中心的Jules Hoffmann 教授和纽约洛克菲勒大学的Ralph Steinman 教授。Beutler 和 Hoffman 阐释了先天免疫方面的研究。他们发现了能识别外来微生物并激活先天性免疫的受体蛋白质,并试图摧毁它们,从而揭示了身体免疫应答过程的第一步。

Steinman investigated dendritic cells, and their key role in what’s called adaptive immunity—the specialized response to specific invaders that comes into play when innate immunity isn’t enough. Thanks to adaptive immunity infected cells get wiped out, and exposure to a specific pathogen can leave us with long-standing protection against that pathogen.
Steinman 研究了树突状细胞和它们在所谓的适应性免疫方面的重要作用-当自身免疫不足时,对特定的入侵者给予特定的回应。由于适应性免疫感染细胞得以清除,接触某种特定病原体能让我们对其长期免疫。

The detailed understanding of the immune system provided by the new Nobel laureates has given other researchers the ability to improve vaccines and to attempt to stimulate immune reactions to cancer. Their insights also inform efforts to damp down the immune system when it becomes too zealous, which can lead to excessive inflammation and autoimmunity.
由新科诺贝尔奖得主提供的对免疫系统的详细解释已经为其他研究提供了助力,提高疫苗活性并尝试刺激对癌症的免疫反应。基于他们的见解,当免疫系统变得过于强烈时可以及时平息它,避免导致过度炎症和自身免疫。

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